Definitions Related to Hebrew Letters Source: www.MyHebrewBible.Com/Hebrew

dotting or pointing is a diacritical system of signs (נִקּוּד means point in Hebrew) to represent vowels (i.e. Vowel Points). The most common system was created by the Masoretes of Tiberias in the second half of the first millennium AD in the Land of Israel.
holam (חוֹלָם) is vowel sign represented by a dot above the upper left corner of the consonant letter that makes an ō sound like boat
mappiq א (מפיק which means "causing to go out" in Hebrew) is a vowel point which takes the form of a dot in the middle of a letter (usually the hey ה, and rarely the aleph א). An identical point with a different phonetic function (marking different consonants) is called a dagesh.
dagesh (דָּגֵשׁ) means emphasis (plural dagashim) and is a vowel point which takes the form of a dot in the middle of a letter and has the effect of modifying the sound in one of two ways. An identical mark called mappiq, has a different phonetic function, and can be applied to different consonants; the same mark is also employed in the vowel shuruk ּ. The two functions of dagesh are distinguished as either kal (light) or hazak (strong).
  dagesh kal may be placed inside the consonants ב bet, ג gimel, ד dalet, כ kaf, פ pe and ת tav. This is made into an acronmy called BeGadKeFat  

In modern Hebrew three of these letters can have their sounds change dependent on the presence of a dagesh or not. The three are the bet, caf and pey, and without the dagesh their respective sounds are soften to the vet, chaf and fey.
No Dagesh
vet ב
chaf כ
fey פ
With Dagesh
bet בּ
caf כּ
pey פּ
  dagesh hazak (דגש חזק) may be placed in almost any letter, this indicated a doubling of that consonant in the pronunciation of pre-modern Hebrew. The following letters, the gutturals, almost never have a dagesh. A few instances of resh with dagesh are masoretically recorded in the Hebrew Bible, as well as a few cases of aleph with a dagesh, such as in Lev 23:17.  
The Hebrew gutturals are א aleph, ה hey, ח chet, ע ayin, ר resh.  
Kubutz and Shuruk
both of these letters represent the u sound like boot. Kubutz has three dots underneath like here (using a bet)... בֻ shuruk always uses the letter vav with a dot in the middle and to the left of it like... וּ.
The dot is identical to the grammatically different signs unicode #1468 (dagesh and mapiq), Shuruk itself is a vowel sign, so if the letter before the vav doesn't have its own vowel sign then the vav with the dot is a Shuruk and otherwise it is a vav with a Dagesh or a Mappiq. Furthermore, the Mappiq only appears at the end of the word and only in the letter He (ה) {exception with the Aleph}
Ktiv hasar niqqud
are the rules for writing Hebrew without vowel pointers (niqqud), often replacing them with matres lectionis. כתיב חסר ניקוד literally means "spelling lacking niqqud", colloquially known as ktiv male כתיב מלא To avoid confusion, the Hebrew consonants vav ו and sometimes the hey ה or yood are doubled in the middle of words.
holam haser
is written as vav ו in text without niqqud (vowel points).
matres lectionis
Hebrew used to only contain consonant letters which can be confusion because it can be read differently so some of the consonant letters were used for the indication of long vowels. The long vowel used is vav ו and sometimes the hey ה or yood י are used. This thing came to be known as matres lectionis (Latin mothers of reading).
Here is a link for this.  Shva Nach (the resting, or silent shva)  
  • Learning the letters
  • Learning the vowels
  • Learning the Hebrew syllables
Paleo Hebrew Alephbet
Here is a link for this.
Qere Ketiv
The most important of the Masoretic notes are those that detail the Qere קְרֵי (what is read) and Ketiv כְּתִיב (what is written) that are located in the Masorah parva in the outside margins of BHS. Given that the Masoretes would not alter the sacred consonantal text, the Kethiv-Qerenotes were a way of "correcting" or commenting on the text for any number of reasons (grammatical, theological, aesthetic, etc.) deemed important by the copyist. [22] Source  . For a more detailed page see Qere Ketiv  .
See List
א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ל מ נ ס ע פ צ ק ר ש ת   -   ך ם ן ף ץ

holam haser (more info)

The holam haser for vav is unicode #1466, and it occurs 412 in the database. unicode #1468 (dagesh or mapiq) and #1465 (cholem) seem very similar.
T-Sql Examples
  • Kubutz and Shuruk
      SELECT NCHAR(1489) + NCHAR(1467) AS KubutzWithBet, NCHAR(1493)+NCHAR(1468) AS Shuruk
  • English vowels
      SELECT NCHAR(0257) AS Long_a, NCHAR(0275) AS Long_e, NCHAR(0333) AS Long_o, NCHAR(0363) AS Long_u
  • Precomposed dagesh characters
      SELECT NCHAR(64305) AS BetDagesh, NCHAR(64315) AS KafDagesh, NCHAR(64324) AS PeDagesh